Pragmatic 48: You Say Data, I Say Daaa-taaa

4 December, 2014

CURRENT

SCADA User Interface design has many things in common with other graphical design methodologies. We look at how SCADA works, what it does, the limitations of the human eye and colour perception, buttons as buttons, indicators as indicators and more.

Transcript available
Welcome to pragmatic in pragmatic as a weekly discussion show contravene a practical application technology exploring the rule treat us we look at how great ideas are transformed into products and services that can change our lives nothing is as simple as it seems is episode sponsored by Lynda.com Lynda.com is easy and affordable way to learn we can instantly stream thousands of courses crowned by experts in the fields of business software when development graphic design and lots more visit LY NDA.com/pragmatic to get free 10 day trial if you ever learn something new what are you waiting for this episode is also sponsored by harvest harvest let you time your tasks where ever you might be doing them and then easily analyse your timesheet to track nonbillable or hopefully billable hours then turn as an invoice for your clients with both PayPal and stripe integration check out harvest and get harvest or one word.com and sign up for a free 30 day trial and start tracking your time and invoicing others simply and painlessly much of the HR is up use the coupon code pragmatic at the checkout and you'll also say 50% off your first month but hurry this offer expires January 15, 2015 little more about them during the show I'm your host IgG and enjoy today as always by Vic Hudson has gone back going Gojo are you I am exceptionally exceptional Orien well I've had a lot of caffeine marriage but I'm in which case the cat is the caffeine talking to the caffeine is exceptional, Nirvana lovely aright seen a lot we can get straight into it this week arm I have had several requests from listeners to talk more about my current wheelhouse and engineering and is as only the ships know is not actually a physical wheelhouse I'm talking about specifically to in this the steps out about Skarda now I have talked about Skarda Brett previously briefed briefly briefly previously bruised briefly and it was written down very much detail at all our I've talked about on a couple of far podcast I've guested on artist to explain a bit of what is but never really gone into some of the details in depth as to some the things about Skarda that I think matter a lot that a lot of people don't you and honestly I think there's a lot of user interface paradigms that I've learned from my very brief time developing on iOS and is arm and on the PalmPilot and on other platforms that I would I brought with me into the Skarda world and one of things it depresses me a lot is that a lot of engineers that work in Skarda or electricians for example the other guy would be contingent that worked their way up from just wiring to programming PLCs and programming Skarda systems is that they don't have any real experience programming in user interfaces so they don't have a grasp on the concepts of user interface design and I consider that some of my early Skarda systems that I did were absolutely horrible and I look back on them and I feel terrible that my name is associated with them like I shot a man it is so bad I need to do better and is again the archive talked about this previously as well as that this that desire to do better tempted to want to our make yourself better is something I really look for in developers designers and engineers that are working for me in particular I want that because that is an attribute that leads you to a point where inevitably look back at your stuff and so you know I would do this but I know better because there is nothing that is so perfect that there is not something that can be complained about an improved and refined anyway so without further ado what is Skarda do not Skarda stands for I think you actually are and go for it that would be supervisory control and data acquisition absolutely use a date I say data and some you say data which is even more weird than a minor gas got me data anyhow so one yes that's exactly what is and what that actually means because people publish still listen supervisor control and data acquisition is a wire sort me that we translated from German difference when we could get the English is a leading English translation what Skarda is is it's essentially become and I guess I'm focusing on the last 20 to 30 years using a graphical user interface is it's become software that runs on a desktop PC platform and it allows you to it's essentially becomes the window into the control system so your controls and is run by plc Odysseus and RTU all of those things is a black box somewhere okay always literally black doesn't have to be black could be a horrible shade of grey like Siemens gear or you could be a disgusting shade of bone or run or brown like some the Schneider gear could be whatever colour really doesn't matter called black box if you like makes it easier anyhow and little do it'll take our sensor input from our PE so we talked about some photoelectric sensors sound previously and is it will take inputs like a inductive proximity switch so you know something that is has a near enough in the firm as a ferric material are ferromagnetic material such that it passes the front has an inductive effect and that inductive effect can flick a switch you so sensors of different kinds you could be scales it could be a level instrument could be an ultrasonic measuring distance there's a whole bunch of myriad of different sensors that connect into a plc Odysseus Marty to tell it some key piece of information about machine or the plant that you're controlling and of course you have the outputs and the outputs will drive things like motors to spin in certain speeds go all actuator hydraulic actuator to extend a retractor moved to a specific position go hundred and one different things in folder list the more but all of that and all that, control and processing is all done inside that blackbox program in different languages whether it's your function block diagram whether it's our ladder whether it's the OS tower makes this a structured text languages our STL Windows machine code harmful if you unfortunately programming in them then and still you or high-level languages that are compiled down doesn't matter the point is that it's becomes essentially a standalone controller and that's fine if you have a system that is essentially completely independent it requires no operator input you simply put stuff on a conveyor belt and a disco sorts itself out again for their inability and interface three yet because it needs no interface you it is essentially a machine where that will take care of itself and to be perfectly honest in the sorts of areas I work there is really no such machine there is always some degree of operator input there is always some degree of operator feedback that you require me a man is a picture a place like AER mail sorting facility and I don't mean males is in you and I are males until about mail that you post to someone else and I put the box in the mail to you then go and I are and you got a dozen conveyors and proper more than a dozen several dozen conveyor stable but RFID is on the more barcodes little benefit last September that and the UI trace and say okay while you come from this bin the new fall down the shoot fauna conveyor yo will have a system that writes itself such that the box is always the right way up and will have a bunch of scanners it will scan the RFID tag is a right you go along this conveyor go to this location and all information is preprogrammed in the machines as is okay you go ZIP Code blah you need to go to this box and then you will be sorted from that level further down again eventually you'll end up on a truck and the truck will then take you to the next post office driven sort you further so anyway though sorts of systems can be automated without much of an interface and you would think well that's fine I don't need to see what's going on inside the PLCs brain it's can figure it out still been programmed and that's great it's autonomous right that's the whole point of automation autonomous automation you don't have to do anything that's great unfortunately people want to be able to look at what's going on in boxes to it differently exactly a menu may want to override and say I don't want this on all these is going to this ZIP Code I want they did them to go to a different mail sorting centre so you need to be a teller system what to do and to override certain things you may want to jog the system so let's say you got a conveyor belt anyone manually override see not on organist and any passes in this big one here Solas stop the automation on the flip this one opened manual control and the jog it specifically and push it into this bin and has been or take it specifically open a rubbish bin but out to a different arm in a truck or if you really are concerned perhaps the only light fingers that light fingered the post office employees you hear about that to open the mail as a rival desert MacBook Air in their or you know maybe Microsoft surface who can say anyhow so are little stealers that mean actually one and one the managers I work with has as a surface Pro two and army dated every meeting and I've had a look at have a play with it and the aid is pretty sweet Bellamy you can't use it on your lap and that is a dealbreaker for me and I talked about previous episode 29 anyhow you can't fight the physics what can I say anyhow so yes love Leighton so a they need to be able to do that's how you do that you got buttons your toggles and of course you've got more modern equivalent which is a scar system and what that does is it gives you the ability to observe what's going on inside the memory of the plc so all these things that say after parcel here of the parcel there it's on this conveyor that conveyor is moving at whatever rate it's going at all that useful and perhaps less useful information can be displayed graphically are sometimes God is be lazy and I have little indicator light although have a number to this conveyor belt is moving at me oh 5 ft/s we are shiatsu are really fast 10 ft/m maybe is a well laid out the parcel this flew out the window arm near the fast I want to show things like that the speed of the motor or whether or not you know it's moving a certain direction and is that's when you realise it's cardio is should be more than just a collection of indicators and lights and buttons on and so on in numbers but it should actually help the user to visualise what's going on and is that's the sort of scar system that I want talk about is, talk about discusses in the last 2030 years where there is an approximation of that were extract data from the actual device doing the automation and it provides a window into the system allows you to monitor what's going on and to adjust and control it if you want to and that's were the whole definition comes from supervisory control and data acquisition so just briefly about the data acquisition piece is that you discusses them traditionally also have the ability to process alarms so let's say that an event occurs here in India and you want to indicate that well monologue the time it happened and obviously you if it's a specific error like is a fault on conveyor belt one UI notice conveyor belt one so you are logged and alarm system the alarm system will say conveyor belt one went into alarm it went into the city alarm came in it came in at 11:20 PM you and the alarm was acknowledged by the operator and scar system is acknowledged at our midnight because they were lazy are to break 40 minutes and did notice that you and the alarm cleared or went out kale came out what photo I was blocked you all that exactly you and it went out maybe when at 11 to your 12:30 because the other it took them half an hour clear a blockage of something so all that alarm information shows and can show a list of current alarms alarms have come and gone out acknowledged alarms and ignores alarms whatever you like how you want to sort your data and so on you can usually start a site or plant area are all that sort of thing is all held in the alarm management is also handled by scanner are or are candy and cause the other one with data acquisition is long-term event and trend looking so young operator it is a setpoint although pushbutton we would log operator blows logged in with their username so operator blah Bob Bob the builder's above the logs in and says okay no change setpoint speed setpoint spill was going at 10 ft/m on the make a thousand feet managers: policy thinks financial window so you they make that change in case you come in the morning and the windows broken as parcels lying on the floor everywhere and they say Bob did you mess with the setpoint for their son Bob is like no other was me and go through the logs and the like actually the event log says that you changed it were we thinking and then Bob soaked with my thumbs whistling quietly in the corner and the army believe me the witchhunt are man i.e. other times I've done the witchhunt to figure out which was the numbness operator that broke it event logging is your friend believe me mind your presidency at that way cycle that's Big Brother you're looking at if you made a mistake yet exactly is your look over my shoulder as I be our next ability something dumb don't anyway mind that so data acquisition so that event logging piece the other and other one is the ace trending so trend for example transformation that say you're looking at a process variable and another look at flow rate estates flow of water through a pipe we want to know what the flow rate is because well is one not anyway it's flowing in hundred and 50 L a second and you and trend that flow rate C1 you can train a flurry and take a sample and instead take a sample every second every five seconds every 10 every minute our every five every 10 minutes doesn't matter you know however long you think is reasonably granular amount of time and you sample information to save it you grab a sample say that grab a sample say that he is keep stacking up Frisbee hard drive is all we can limit on sale on a capture that data for a day or a week's worth and it will be like a rolling window a rolling average if you can generate an average of the degree rolling average for what we can do is trend and display pretty line graft that shows you what that value did the last 24 hour period last week last month last year last aeon although probably not last beyond since computers didn't exist that far back then I so that's trending in a nutshell real fast and I was I mention those things because they are not my bugbears they are not the focus of this particular episode I need to mention that they exist because while they do and scar arteries are multifaceted are better software and those are important facets of it on the project I'm working on the moment and on several other projects they are those thoughts as those mentioned aren't enough soaked also wow the built-in trending package into that says when cc RSV wonder where fast tools Scientech doesn't really matter any of those is just not good enough right it doesn't have good statistical analysis I can't extract data from easily are AS I DO A BACK IMPORT FOR WHATEVER REASON THAT SALE BLOSSOMED DATA FROM 171 IMPORTED FROM ANOTHER SERVICE OF A TAG THAT THE DATA BACKFILLING AS BAD AS I DON'T WANT TO USE THAT USE A SEPARATE ONE SOLELY TO SEPARATE ARMS OF A PACKAGE AND OVERCOME OSI MAKES A PACKAGE CALLED UP I ARE AS IN NIGHT PI NOT ONE YOU EAT AND LIKE THE NUMBER OF THE SPECIAL NUMBER .3 .141 597 BOULDER ACES I WANT IS A 96 AND AT AK TAKE A DEEP BREATH OKAY SO ARMED YET AND YOU CAN HAVE THIRD-PARTY SOLUTIONS SO THESE THIRD-PLACE SOLUTIONS ALL WILL EXTRACT THE DATA FROM THE SCAR SYSTEM OR EVEN FROM THE PEEL CDC HAS A RIGHT TO YOU DIRECTLY AND THEY WILL LOG THE INFORMATION AND YOU CAN ALSO GET ALARM MANAGEMENT TOOLS DO EXACTLY THE SAME THING BUT SKARDA IS DESIGNED AND HAS ALWAYS BEEN DECIDED AND FROM THE BEGINNING TO BE AN ALL IN ONE SOLUTION FOR ALL OF THAT IF YOU WANT MORE ADVANCED FEATURES YOU CAN GET PRODUCTS THAT ARE SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED FOR THAT SPECIFIC TASK LIKE A LAST-MINUTE ALARM MANAGEMENT LIKE TRENDING SO I'M NOT GOING TALK ANY MORE ABOUT THAT STUFF BECAUSE YES IT IS IMPORTANT TO ACKNOWLEDGE THAT YES DOES EXIST ARE AND THAT DISCOVERED THIS PART OF WHAT SKARDA DOES BUT IT'S NOT WELL AT ALL ABOUT TODAY ONTO A USER INTERFACES BECAUSE I ALSO THINK THAT THAT'S MORE INTERESTING AND WILL BE OF MORE INTEREST ARE TO THE LISTENERS OF THE SHOW BECAUSE THERE'S A LOT OF PARALLELS BETWEEN WHAT YOU DO IS SKARDA AND WHAT YOU DO WITH THE STANDARD USER INTERFACE IF YOU DEVELOPING FOR IOS 4 FOR ANY PLATFORM I CAN KEEP SAYING IOS THAT IS THE PLATFORM THE NON-CONTROL SUPPLY FOR MY PROGRAM FOR MYSELF MOST RECENTLY THAT'S ONLY REASON I KEEP MENTIONING IT YES I DO REALISE.NET IT'S A BIG DEAL ABSOLUTELY SO IS JAVA YET AGAIN ENDING THE USER INTERFACE OKAY SO THIS WEB BUTTON IS SHOWING SURE THAT WHEN YOU DO NOT USE SHIRT BUTTONS ARE REALLY A HANGAR NONE OF THOSE OF THE BUTTONS BELLYBUTTON'S BUTTON NOT THEM EITHER PUSHBUTTON'S YES YES NOW YET NOW YOU'RE ON THE TROLLEY OKAY WITHOUT REALLY SAYING I GOT THAT FROM THE SIMPSON ARM THANKS FOR ELABORATE THERE NOW YOU'RE ON THE TROLLEY ONLY IN MY SAID SOMETHING ABOUT BEING LATE 1920S TALK TROLLEY CAR YELLOW-EYED ORDER TROLLEY IS ACTUALLY UNDERSTOOD THE METAPHOR IT IT'S PRETTY GOOD WITH IS TO STRESS THE MATTER AT NOW YOU'RE ON THE TROLLEY ANYWAY MAKES GOOD SENSE – CS PUSHBUTTON IS ABSOLUTELY AND I WANT HER IT MAY SOUND WEIRD BUT WE HAVE TO START WITH A MOCKER DO THE HISTORY PUSHBUTTON IS GOING AS PROPORTIONATELY MUCH ONLY AS ALL THAT INTERESTING TO PUSH MY BUTTONS ARE GOOD ANYHOW SO THE IDEA PUSHBUTTON IS IS PRETTY STRAIGHTFORWARD AND THAT IS YOU WANT TO DO A BINARY OPERATION ON AS AN INPUT INTO A CONTROL SYSTEM OF SOME KIND AND THE PUSHBUTTON IS ESSENTIALLY THE FINGER BASED EXTENSION OF A LEVER SO GO BACK TO THE RAILWAY DAYS WHEN YOU SWITCHING POINTS THE WAY THAT YOU WOULD DO IT IS YOU WOULD THERE'S A ARE A LOCKING HANDLE YOUR PULL THE LOCKING HANDLE AND THAT WOULD RELEASE THAT WOULD RELEASE THE OTHER RATCHET TO CLAMP AND THEN YOU COULD FREELY MOVE THAT LEVER FORWARDS AND BACKWARDS BETWEEN USUALLY JUST TWO POSITIONS EITHER OPEN OR CLOSED BUT SOME OF THEM HAD MULTIPLE POSITIONS AND THOSE THAT DESIGN OBVIOUSLY YOU NEEDED THAT LEVERAGED BECAUSE THAT LEVERAGE WAS WHAT MOVE THE POINTS BACK AND FORTH AND THAT PHYSICALLY WAS QUITE HEAVY BECAUSE THOSE TRACKS WERE CAST-IRON STEEL THEY WERE CLIENTS IN A QUITE HEAVY AND OBVIOUSLY HAD FRICTION AND YOU HAD THE ODE OF THE LINKAGES THEMSELVES HAD A BIT OF PLAY IN THEM SO YOU WOULD MOVE THEM YAH A FEW INCHES ARE PHYSICALLY AT THE LEVER AND YOU WOULDN'T GET A CORRESPONDING OUR INITIAL MOVEMENTS IN THE ACTUAL POINTS THEMSELVES PHYSICALLY SO YOU HAD TO MOVE THEM OVER A LARGE DO WHAT THEY WILL THE RV THE OVERALL DOES THAT DISTANCE IS CALLED A THROW OF THE LEVER SO YOU HAD TO THROW IT QUITE A LONG DISTANCE IN ORDER TO GET PHYSICAL MOVEMENT OF A RELATIVELY SHORT DISTANCE YET AND YESTERDAY WAS THE NATURE OF THE BEAST MECHANICAL ISSUE RIGHT BUT ONCE YOU MOVE AWAY FROM BUTTONS HAVING PHYSICAL LINKAGES AND EBONY BECOMES ELECTRIC YAH IT NO LONGER BECOMES A CASE OF PHYSICAL ACTION IS REQUIRED TO MOVE A PHYSICAL OBJECT ARE IN TERMS OF DIRECT MECHANICAL LINKAGE SO THAT LINKAGE CAN BE AMPLIFIED THROUGH RELAYS AND THROUGH HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS AND OF COURSE THE REMOTE IS SO EVERYTHING IS DONE THROUGH ARE EITHER ELECTRIC ARE ELECTRIC MAGNETIC OR HYDRAULIC ACTION THAT ALLOWS YOU TO THEN REDUCE SIGNIFICANTLY THE AMOUNT OF PHYSICAL EFFORT REQUIRED IN ORDER TO FLIP THE STATE OF WHATEVER THING YOU'RE TRYING TO FLIP THE STATE OF IN THE CASE OF OUR POINTS ELECTRIC POINTS THESE DAYS YEAR YOU CAN DO GO OVER SIMPLE PUSHBUTTON THAT REPLACES ALL THE LEVERS SO THE IDEA PUSHBUTTON IS SIMPLE AND THAT IS THAT YOU HAVE A SMALL SPRING INSIDER CANISTER YOU PUSH DOWN ON THE END OF THAT CANISTER THAT DEPRESSES THE SPRING THERE'S A PIN IN THE CENTRE AND THAT PIN IS DEPRESSED AS THE PEN IS DEPRESSED THEN THAT WILL THEN CREATE A CLOSE CONTACT WHICH CLOSES A CIRCUIT ONE-SIDED THAT CIRCUIT WILL HAVE POWER ON IT AS IN A VOLTAGE APPLIED TO IT DO MOST CONTROL CIRCUITS ARE EITHER 00 BY THE BIG START OF FIVE VAULTS IN SOME CASES MOST THEM A 12 R 24 OR 48 V 24 BEING THE MOST COMMON CONTROL SYSTEMS 12 WHILST BEING THE MOST COMMON CARS MAINLY BECAUSE SIX LEAD ACID CELLS GIVES YOU 13.8 V OPEN CIRCUIT AND MINUTES UNDER REASON AND LOADED THEY CONSIDER 12 WAS TO BE THE AVERAGE AND THAT'S ARE A WELL A ROLE A REGULATED CAR BATTERY WILL GET YOU 12 V SOLAR SYSTEMS ARE BASED ON 12 V DC LOGIC ARM NO CONTROL SYSTEMS ARE SO 24 BECAUSE THE HIGH CURRENT REQUIREMENTS FOR SOME RELAYS & SO FORTH AND ITS TWO CAR BATTERIES WITH BEING ON IT AND IN A MANNER SO THE IDEA IS YOU PUSH THE PUSHBUTTON CURRENT THEN YOU CLOSED-CIRCUIT THE CURRENT FLOWS THROUGH THAT SWITCH AND YOU CAN THEN BE MADE TO ACTUATE WHATEVER YOU NEED TO HAVE ACTUATED OR IN THE CASE OF A PLC AND ARTY OR A DCS THAT PUSHBUTTON PROVIDES A VERY SMALL CURRENT INTO THE INPUT OF AN INPUT CARD THAT IS SENSED BY THE PLC IS THEN USED AS AN INSTRUCTION FOR THAT TO DO SOMETHING SO YOU START BUTTON PUSHED ME KNOW OR JOG CONVEYOR BELT FREAKED OUT SO PUSHBUTTON IS TRADITIONALLY AROUND IN THE ROUND BECAUSE WELL ROUND IS EASY TO MACHINE YOU PUT DOWN A LAZY SPIN AROUND AND IT'S EASIER TO GO EXTRUDED ALSO A SO YOU COULD EXTRUDE AS WELL SORRY SEGA MACHINE YOU CAN EXTRUDE IT IS EASY TO DO THAT THEN IS TO DO A SQUARE OR RECTANGLE ARE HAPPIER HOWEVER AND ALSO OUR GO FROM A PHYSICAL POINT OF VIEW YOU TOUCH A PUSHBUTTON SO ARE YOU AS I ACTUALLY DISCUSSED THE VERY FIRST EPISODE OF PRAGMATIC AND WERE TALKING ABOUT THE YARD THE IPHONE AND THAT THE WAY THAT THE MANUFACTURING HAD EVOLVED YOUR HANDS WANT TO TOUCH SMOOTH SURFACES THEY PREFER TO TOUCH A SMOOTH SURFACE SHARP EDGES JAGGED EDGES POINTY EDGES ARE ALL THE ENEMY IF YOU ARE TRYING TO MAKE SOMETHING AS NICE TACTILE FEELING AS POSSIBLE SHARP EDGES ARE BAD SO WHAT YOU WANT TO DO IS YOU WANT TO HAVE PUSHBUTTONS THAT YOU BE PUSHING A LOT NEED TO BE ROUNDED AND SMOOTH SO TYPICALLY THEY TEND TO BE ROUNDED DOWN WITH THE OTHER FACTOR DRIVING THE CIRCULAR NATURE IS OF COURSE ARMED THERE'S A BULL'S-EYE THERE'S THE BULL'S-EYE THING WITH THE ICE OF THE EYE IS DRAWN TOWARDS THE CENTRE OF THE BALLS AFTER LARGE SQUARE OR RECTANGLE THAT IS LESS OBVIOUS AND OF COURSE FINALLY IF YOU LOOK AT THE HUMAN FINGER THE HUMAN FINGER WHEN LOOKED AND ON IS APPROXIMATELY CIRCULAR SEVERE GO PUSHBUTTONS WHAT ELSE CAN I SAY TOGGLE SWITCHES SO TOGGLE SWITCH IS ESSENTIALLY LIKE A PUSHBUTTON BUT WHAT I TOLD DESCRIBE IT AS BEFORE IS A MOMENTARY ACTION SURVEY REFER TO THE MOMENTARY ACTION WE'VE GOT SPRING-LOADED SYSTEM IN THE SPRING LOADS OVER WHEN YOU WHEN YOU APPLY PRESSURE ARE THAT COMPRESSES THE SPRING AND THAT THROWS THE SWITCH THAT'S GREAT ARBOUR WHEN YOU TAKE YOUR FINGER OFF THE BUTTON ARE YOU THE SPRING WILL THEN OBVIOUSLY THAT THE KINETIC ENERGY STORED IN THE SPRING WILL FORCE THAT TO EXTEND AND THEN THE COME CONTACT WILL BE BROKEN AND YOUR CURRENT YOUR CIRCUIT WILL BE BROKEN THE CURRENT AND VOLTAGE THAT WILL STOP AND DO WHATEVER IT IS ALL WILL DISAPPEAR THAT IT'S CONTROLLING THAT'S WHAT I REFER TO AS MOMENTARY ACTION WAS ONE TOGGLE SWITCH IS DIFFERENT IT ADDS A TOGGLING FUNCTION SUCH THAT WHEN YOU PUSH IT ARE IN AREA BASICALLY IT'S OUR IT LATCHES IN THE ON POSITION AND YOU'LL HEAR IT CLICK USUALLY SO YOU'RE HERE AS YOU CLICK YOU'LL GO CLICK CLICK AND THEN YOU'LL TAKE YOUR FINGER OFF OF THE BUTTON WILL REMAIN IN THE DEPRESSED STATE I WAS IN ON STATE YOU PUSH THAT AGAIN IT'LL GOING EVER SO SLIGHTLY TO RELEASE THE ROUND THE LATCH AND THEN THAT BUTTON WILL REALLY RETURN TO ITS FULLY OUTRIGHT AND EXTENDED POSITION WHEN YOU REMOVE YOUR FINGER FROM OUR OBVIOUSLY TOGGLE SWITCHES COME IN OTHER FORMS OF ANNOUNCEMENT PUSHBUTTONS THOMAS IS ALSO OUR LIGHT SWITCH IS A TOPIC THAT IS A TOGGLE SWITCH SO YOU KNOW IN NORTH AMERICA FOR EXAMPLE ARE TWO PREDOMINANT TYPES YOU'VE GOT THE YAH ARE A FAITH FLICK SWITCH WHICH BASICALLY YAH IT ROTATES AROUND A COMMON POINT SO YOU'VE GOT A ARM YOU HAVE AN ACTUAL PIVOT POINT AND AS YOU FLICK THE SWITCH UP AND DOWN THE OTHER RECTANGULAR KNOB ON THE END WILL LITERALLY ROTATE AROUND A COMMON POINT AND THAT WILL FLICK ARE BOTH UP AND DOWN ARE OTHERWISE YOU HAVE A SLIDER TOGGLE SWITCHES AND ONE WHICH UTILISES THEIR THE LONG RECTANGULAR SITE WITH A SMALL RECTANGULAR OUR PROTRUSION AND YOU WILL SLIDE THAT UP WE WILL SLIDE BACK DOWN TO WORK TO TURN LIGHTS ON AND OFF FOR EXAMPLE ARE BUT THEY ARE STILL TECHNICALLY TOGGLE SWITCH IS A LESSON WE WILL REFER THEM THE YAH THE SLIDER TYPE SWITCHES AS A SLIDER SWITCH BUT HONESTLY IT'S A TOGGLING ON OR OFF OKAY ARM THE NEXT THING IS AN INDICATOR BUTTON IS A SPECIAL KIND OF BUTTON THAT ALSO HAS A STATE INDICATION THAT IT'S ON OR OFF SO THEY WILL HAVE AN LED OR THE OLD-STYLE HAVE ALLOW LIKE A SMALL LAMP BUILT INTO IT AND THE ACTUAL BUTTON ITSELF WON'T BE MADE OUT OF SOLID MATERIAL ABOUT MADE OUR SOLID METAL MAY BE MADE OUT OF SOLID OUR CHANCES ARE NOT SOLID MALVOLIO I GUESS YOU COULD DRILL IS WHAT APPLE DOES IS THAT THEY'LL DRILL YOU THOUSANDS OF MICROSCOPIC HOLES LASER SIZE HOLES AND LET THE LIGHT BLEED THROUGH BUT YOU GENERALLY SPEAKING THEY WILL NOT BE SOLID MATERIAL I GUESS VISUAL THOUSANDS OF MICROSCOPIC HOLES IT'S TECHNICALLY NOT SOLID BUT ANYWAY ARE ITS I SHOULD SAY NOT SOLID I SHOULD SAY TRANSPARENT OR APPARENT ARM OR OPAQUE OR PARTLY TRANSPARENT WHARF AND FULLY OPAQUE PERHAPS ANYHOW ARE SO INDICATOR BUNS ALLOW THE ANSWER TO SHINE THROUGH ARM FROM RIGHT FINALLY ASSOCIATED WITH BUTTONS ARE PHYSICAL LABELS SO ON A TRADITIONAL CONTROL PANEL YOU ARE GOING TO HAVE A PHYSICAL LABEL EITHER BENEATH ABOVE OR DIRECTLY ADJACENT ON THE LEFT OF THE RIGHT OF THE BUTTON TELLING YOU WHAT THE BUTTON DOES IT COULD BE SIMPLE LIKE JOG OR COULD BE FORWARD OR ABBREVIATION FWD MEANINGFUL YAH OR IT COULD BE DYING OVER LIKE A MULTIPLE SENTENCE NO LABEL THAT SAYS SHOULD YOU CHOOSE TO PUSH THIS BUTTON BAD THINGS WILL HAPPEN YOU MAY WISH TO RECONSIDER PUSHING THIS BUTTON BECAUSE BAD THINGS WILL HAPPEN I USUALLY REALLY WANT PUSH THIS BUTTON BECAUSE BAD THINGS WILL HAPPEN YET THE IDEA RIGHT SO FAR OBVIOUSLY BREVITY IS YOUR FRIEND'S VESTIBULAR CONTROL BOARD THAT IS COVERED IN HUNDREDS OF BUTTONS BUT THE SAME TIME IF YOU GOT 10 BUNS ALSO FORWARD NOTHING ELSE THAT'S PROBABLY NOT GOOD ENOUGH SO THAT'S HOW MACHINES TRADITIONALLY HANDLED THE ABUNDANCE OF I HAD A CONTROL PANEL ON OLD MACHINE FROM LIKE PRECOMPUTED DAYS PRE-SCALA DAYS THERE WOULD BE NO SCALE SYSTEM THERE BE NO TOUCHSCREEN THERE BE NO INTERFACE OTHER THAN A BUNCH OF BUTTONS AND A FEW INDICATORS SO CONTINUING ALONG THAT THEME, TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT INDICATORS BUT BEFORE I DO I LIKE TO TALK ABOUT OUR FIRST SPONSOR FOR THIS EPISODE AND THAT HARVEST THEM MANY PEOPLE LISTING THE SHOW SPENT THEIR TIME WORKING ON HOME PROJECTS AND WORK PROJECTS TO AND YOU LOSE TRACK OF TIME NOW WE TALK ABOUT THIS IN THE SHOW BEFORE THAT RUMOUR BEING REALISTIC ABOUT HOW MUCH TIME YOU HAVE AVAILABLE IN ONE WAY CAN TRACK YOUR TIME IS BY USING HARVEST THEY WERE SIMPLE TO USE WEB THAT WE CAN CREATE TASKS THEY ALSO HAVE A MOBILE APP FOR BOTH ANDREW AND IOS AND IS EASY TO SELECT A TASK OR ACTIVITY IS DONE STOP AT TIME OF MANY OF THEM ON THE MAC INSTALLS A NEAT MENUBAR ICON DETECTS WHEN YOU BEEN IDLE FOR A LONG TIME WHEN YOU COME BACK YOU CAN CHOOSE DEDUCT THOSE IDLE MINUTES OR HOURS FROM THE TOTAL IT'S LITTLE TOUCHES LIKE THAT IS PRETTY COOL IT'S A GREAT WAY TO TRACK YOUR TIME AND WHERE IT'S GOING AND ARTIE DONE THAT IT'S REALLY EASY TO LOOK BACK AT YOUR TIMESHEET ARE SEAWEED TIMES GONE THAT'S HANDY ENOUGH BUT IF YOU WORK ON A PROJECT WITH A TEAM YOUR CO-WORKERS CAN TRACK THEIR TIME MAKES IT REALLY EASY TO MANAGE AROUND SIMON THAT ON A PROJECT AS A WHOLE AND HARVEST ALSO MAKES INVOICING EASY IT'S QUICK AND PAINLESS AS OUR CLIENTS MULTIPLE POINTS OF CONTACT THOSE CLIENTS YOU CAN THEN CREW BUILD AN INVOICE BASED ON INFORMATION CAN SELECT ONE OR MORE PEOPLE DESCENDED TO IT THAT CLIENT IN SEND YOURSELF A COPY AND BETTER THAN THAT IT ALLOWS YOU TO PULL HOURLY RATES THAT YOU ENTER INTO THE SYSTEM AND COMBINE THAT WITH YOUR TIMESHEETS TO CREATE INVOICES PRACTICALLY AUTOMATICALLY BASED ON YOUR TIMESHEETS AND ALL INTEGRATES NICELY WITH PAYPAL AND STRIPED NO ONE USING HARVEST INVOICES FOR THIS PODCAST AND TRACKING MY TIME AND IT'S NOW TAKEN OVER AS MY INVOICING SYSTEM OF CHOICE IT'S THAT NICE CHECKOUT HARVEST AND GET HARVEST OR ONE WORD.COM AND SIGN UP FOR A FREE 30 DAY TRIAL AND START TRACKING YOUR TIME AND INVOICING OTHERS SIMPLY AND PAINLESSLY IS NO CREDIT CARD REQUIRED IS NO OBLIGATION THOSE WANT YOU TO SEE HOW GREAT AND HOW HANDY IT CAN BE IS NO EXCUSE NOT TO GIVE IT A TRY AND WATCH AS THEY ARE TRIALS OVER ANY REALISES HOW GREAT HARVESTERS USE THE COUPON CODE PRAGMATIC AT THE CHECKOUT AND YOU ALSO SAY 50% OFF YOUR FIRST MONTH THAT APPLIES TO ANY OF THEIR PLANS HURRY THOUGH BECAUSE THIS OFFER EXPIRES ON 15 JANUARY 2015 THANK YOU AGAIN TO HARVEST THE SPONSORING PRAGMATIC OKAY SO NOW LET'S TALK ABOUT INDICATORS SO THIS CAN BE WILL BE QUICKER AND INDICATOR IS ESSENTIAL LIKE A LIGHTBULB MINI LIGHTBULB IF YOU'D LIKE TINY LITTLE THINGS WELL RELATIVELY SPEAKING ARE AND THEY WE JUST REFER TO THEM AS LAMPS ARE THESE DAYS BECAUSE LAMPS ARE DYING THANK GOODNESS BECAUSE THERE IS NOTHING WORSE THAN THE LAMP TEST BUTTON AND WALK UP TO THE PANEL PUSH LAMP TEST AND ALL THE LIGHTS WERE TURNED ON JUST LIKE A CHRISTMAS TREE BUT A VERY EXPENSIVE INDUSTRIAL CHRISTMAS TREE AND ARE THEN A CUSHION TO GO ON CHANGE AT ALL THE LIGHTBULBS BONDS ARE BROKEN VERY TEDIOUS AND BORING UNSCREW THAT UNSCREW THE CAP AND GET YOUR FINGERS AND THEREIN NOW IT'S ALL RUSTED IN PLACE HAS BEEN THERE FOR YEARS AND APPLIES OUTRIGHT PRIOR TO DANCING OUT WAS TO GET IT OUT BENEFIT THE NEW ONE IN AND PUT THE LENS BACK ON THEN RETEST THE LAMP AAA ENTER BECAUSE NO ONE EVER TELLS YOU IS WRONG SO BECAUSE A MAINTENANCE ACTIVITY CARRIED OUT IN GOOD MEMORIES SAY I REMOVED ON LEDS YES LEDS LOVE THEY NEVER DIE WHAT THEY DO BUT IT TAKES A LOT LOT LONGER TO DIE WHICH IS GOOD SAYING OUT ARM LED INDICATORS YET THEY TURN ON THE TELLY THE STATE OF SOMETHING IN HIS DIFFERENT COLOURS OF COURSE YOU MOST, BECAUSE BEING READ ARE YELLOW AND GREEN RK CRC BLUES BUT LESS COMMON ARE SO ARE PHYSICAL LABELS AGAIN SAME STORY WHAT'S THE LIGHT TELLING ME IF IT'S ON ITS EAR AND OF COURSE BUNS CAN INDICATE THE ESTATE THROUGH BEING ON OR OFF AS A BINARY THING OR CAUSING THE FLASHING EOC HABIT FLASHING A CERTAIN RATE YOU IF YOU START DOING THE THING WHERE YOU KNOW YOU DO IN MORSE CODE WITH EUROPE WITH YOUR LIGHT YOU PROBABLY NEED MORE LIGHTS YOU GET US YOU GET THESE PEOPLE SAY I WANT TO MINIMALISE IIA ANIMAL INDICATE A MINIMALIST GO HIGHER OUT ON AN INDICATOR MINIMALIST IT'S BEEN SPENT 30 DAYS SINCE MY LAST INDICATOR IT'S REALLY SIMPLE 3C FOR ACTIVE TWO WEEKS REPRISED WADDLING FOR A SHUTDOWN EXACTLY INSTAT IS THE SORT OF RUBBISH THAT THESE PEOPLE THINK IS ACCEPTABLE IT'S LIKE A LIVE MINIMALISE THE DOWN TO 1 LIGHT AND THEREFORE THAT'S A GOOD THING KNOW IF I NEED AN INSTRUCTION MANUAL THAT IS 15 PAGES LONG DEFEAT DECIPHER WHAT THE HELL THE DOWNLIGHTS MEAN YOU'VE DONE IT WRONG ANYWAY OKAY SO ARE AGAIN THE PHYSICAL LABELS LIKE A SET OKAY NOW THE NEXT THING TO TALK ABOUT IS THE GRAPHICAL EQUIVALENT SO BEFORE WE TALK ABOUT SO THE GRAPHICAL ARM EQUIVALENTS AND SOME THE OTHER LITTLE LITTLE FOIBLES AND AND SO ON NEED TO TALK ABOUT COLOUR BECAUSE COLOUR IS A COLOUR IS A BIG PROBLEM RATHER NO ONE THOUGHT WAS A BIG PROBLEM UNTIL I REALISED THAT IT WAS SAM CINEMA COLOURBLINDNESS VIC ARE A LITTLE BIT I HAVE BEEN TOLD I'VE NEVER BEEN LATE SCIENTIFICALLY TESTED AND PROVEN BY MY MAMA WISHES TO TELL ME I WAS COLOURBLIND YES IF THE THING IS COLOURBLINDNESS IS VERY VERY MISUNDERSTOOD AS A CONDITION SO AGGRESSIVE IS OR WHAT COLOURBLINDNESS IS IN CASE YOU DON'T KNOW BECAUSE THEY'RE PROBABLY WHY THEY DON'T UNDERSTAND HOW IT WORKS BUT HERE'S THE THING OKAY NUMBERS WILL VARY AND AS VARIOUS REPORTS I'VE READ ON THIS AND THE FEELINGS AND SHALLOTS FEEL FREE TO HAVE A LOOK IF YOU WANT MORE DETAILS THERE IS A WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE BUT I FOUND THAT THERE WAS QUITE A FEW ARTICLES OUT THERE LIKE HYPER PHYSICS HAD A GOOD ONE BUT THE NUMBERS VARY SO I DON'T KNOW THE EXACT FIGURES I'M NOT A BIOLOGY ARM ON THE BIOLOGIST PERSON BIOLOGY THING GUY ANYWAY I AM NOT THAT SO THE NUMBERS ARE PROBABLY NOT THAT IMPORTANT BUT IT'S THE RELATIVE NUMBERS THAT THAT ARE GENERALLY THE SAME PERCENTAGES ARE HERE WE ARE AT OUR OUR EYES OUR RETINAS SENSE LIGHT AND DECODE INFORMATION TO THE BRAIN THROUGH THE OPTIC NERVE CHARACTER BUILDING NERVE SO THE RETINA ITSELF CONSISTS OF TWO KINDS OF RECEPTORS ONE THE ONE TYPE WILL THEY REFER TO AS RODS THE OTHERS THEY REFER TO AS CONES THAT HAS TO DO WITH THEIR ORIENTATION HAVE A PHYSICALLY LOOK ONE THEY LITERALLY LOOK LIKE A BUNCH OF RODS AND HOURS OF WHAT A BUNCH KINDS THAT TECHNICALLY YOU COULD LOOK INSIDE ARE ALL KINDS IS THAT ONE IS ORIENTED DIFFERENTLY SO ONCE MORE ON ITS – AND THE OTHER IS MORE LINED DOWN FLAT I GUESS PENNYWEIGHT DOESN'T REALLY MATTER THE POINT IS THAT THEY CALLED RODS AND CONES SO THERE YOU GO ARE NOW THE AVERAGE PERSON AND AS WERE THE NUMBERS VARY BETWEEN 1900 AND 20 MILLION RODS WHICH IS A LOT IN EACH OF THEIR IN EACH OF YOUR ROUND EYES TO THE VIEW SO OUR RODS ARE MORE SENSITIVE THAN CONES ARE TO LIGHT INTENSITY BUT THEY CAN'T DISTINGUISH, NOW THE CONES IN THE CONES HOWEVER THEY CAN DISTINGUISH, AND THEN PROVIDE A COLOUR SENSITIVITY BUT THERE IS ONLY BETWEEN SIX AND 7 MILLION OF THOSE MOUSE I ONLY IT IT SOUNDS LIKE QUITE A LOT BUT THE TRUTH IS THAT AYO THAT IN RELATIVE TERMS ARE SIGNIFICANTLY LESS THAN THE 90 220 MILLION ARM RODS THAT WE HAVE IN OUR EYES FOR DETECTING LIGHT INTENSITY YOU SO RODS ARE MUCH MORE HIGHLY CONCENTRATED IN A CENTRAL OUR YELLOW SPOT KNOWN AS THE MACULA ARE THE CONES ARE FOUND MOST DENSELY IN A .3 MM DIAMETER ROD FREE AREA IN THE VERY CENTRE OF THE MACULA REFERRED TO AS THE FURTHER THEY ARE CENTRALIS SOUNDS RELATE TO ME AND THAT EXPLAINS WHY WE CAN'T DETECT COLOUR VERY WELL IN LOW LIGHT SITUATIONS YOU USE WHAT USUALLY NIGHTTIME EVERYTHING TENDS TO LOOK GREY AND THAT'S SIMPLY BECAUSE OF THE FACT THAT THERE ARE MUCH LESS OF THEM AND THEN OUT AND THE SENSITIVITY THAT WE GET FROM THE ARM FROM THE VAST NUMBER OF OUR OF OF RODS THAT WE HAVE GIVES IS THAT THAT'S THAT'S SENSITIVITY LOW LIGHT BUT NOT NOT THE COLOUR IN LOW LIGHT SO IN TERMS OF THE CONES THEY DETECTS THREE PRIMARY COLOURS RED GREEN AND BLUE'S BRIDE OUT THERE BUT WHAT IS SURPRISING IS THE CURRENT ESTIMATES THAT THEY'VE GOT AS TO THE PROPORTION OF WHICH AND THE WAY THE BRAIN COMPENSATES FOR THE DIFFERENT ONES IS REALLY QUITE FASCINATING SO THE SET OF NUMBERS THAT SEEN DOUG TO GET THE MOST AGREEMENT THAT I COULD FIND IS AROUND ABOUT 60 TO 65% READ ABOUT A 30% GREEN AND AS LITTLE AS 5% BELOW SO IS THAT STATUTE THE STATS WILL VARY BUT IT'S FASCINATING THAT THE DIFFERENT WAVELENGTHS THAT THESE CONES ARE ABLE TO DETECT IS PREDOMINANTLY THE RED MOSTLY AT WHAT'S LEFT IS GREEN AND IS JUST A LITTLE TINY BIT OF BLUE BUT THE BRAIN TENDS TO COMPENSATE FOR THAT TO ADJUST AND BRING UP THE BLUE LEVEL AND ARE HOW DOES THAT IS STILL NOT FULLY UNDERSTOOD SO WE KNOW THAT THERE ARE THE QUALITY OF THE BLUE CAR CONES IS SIGNIFICANTLY LESS BUT THEY ARE MUCH MORE SENSITIVE SO ANYWAY AND IS THE POINT OF FACT NONE OF THAT HAS ONLY DO THE PIGMENTATION COLOUR OF YOUR EYE IN CASE YOU'RE WONDERING THAT'S A COMPLETELY DIFFERENT THINGS AS THIS IS THE RETINA YOU CAN'T TELL BY LOOKING AT YOU KNOW ME LIKE SOME PEOPLE THAT ARE COLOURBLIND YOU CAN'T TELL BY LOOKING IN THERE EITHER COLOURBLIND YET WHICH SOMEONE IS TRYING TO TELL ME I'M LIKE ME AND I HAVE HEARD THAT BEFORE ADDING OF THEIR INTEREST TO KNOW THAT'S BS OVER THE PEOPLE AUTHORING A COLLUSION ARE MORE PRONE TO IT THAN OTHERS AND CANCER THANKFULLY NOT STATISTICALLY PROVEN OKAY SO NO OKAY SO THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF COLOURBLINDNESS AND THEIR TECHNICAL NAMES ARE OUR MONOCHROME SEE DIAGRAM C AND ANOMALOUS TRY CAN'T TRY PRIMACY TRICHROMATIC SICKLE IS A TOUGH ONE SET AT THREE TIMES FASTER AGGRESSIVE PROGRAMS/ROOMS IN THE GATE FAR MORE COMMONLY HOWEVER CLINICALLY THEY REFER TO AS IN THE SAME ORDER ROUGHLY TOTAL COLOURBLINDNESS ARE RED GREEN AND BLUE AND BLUE YELLOW OTHER PEOPLES TALK ABOUT BLUE GREEN AND AND RED BLUE AND SO AND SO FORTH BUT SOME CLINICALLY APPARENTLY NOT BASIN THE RESEARCH THAT I DID SEE I'M NOT COLOURBLIND AT ALL ARE HOWEVER PLENTY PEOPLE ARE 8% OF MEN AND 5% OF OF WOMEN ARE COLOURBLIND IN ONE WAY OR ANOTHER BRAIN OTHER THAN SIGNIFICANT NUMBER KNOW IT'S NOT AND WHEN YOU CONSIDER THAT IN MY INDUSTRY IS STILL VERY MALE DOMINATED IT'S A VERY SIGNIFICANT PROPORTION SO ITALY AT 8% IS CLOSER TO 10% IS A CALL AT 110 THAT'S ALWAYS BEEN THE NUMBER I'VE WORKED WITH SO 1/10 IF YOU GOT A ROOM OF OPERATORS OR A BASE OF OPERATORS ON A UNASSIGNED AND THERE ARE 10 OF THEM YOU'RE GUARANTEED TO HAVE ONE ON AVERAGE THAT WILL BE COLOURBLIND SO WHEN YOU'RE DESIGNING YOUR COLOURS AND WHEN YOU'RE DESIGNING THE COMPLEXITY OF COLOURS AND COLOUR INDICATIONS YOU HAVE TO TAKE THAT INTO ACCOUNT YOU CAN'T IGNORE IT YOU THIS IS WHY YOU NEED A CAR DRESSED YES AND WILL GONNA GET TO THAT SO RIGHT ARM JUST A FEW OF THE SIDES ARE IT'S COMMONLY MOST COMMENTS INHERITED THEN COLOURBLIND HAS INHERITED OUTCOMES IN ITS POLITY ARE X CHROMOSOMES BUT IT CAN ALSO RESULT FROM NON-ARE INHERITED IN OUR REASONS FOR A PREAMBLE SHAKEN BABY SYNDROME WHICH IS A DISTURBING THE POTENTIAL AS WELL AS OF COURSE AYO AS WELL OF COURSE LONG EXPOSURE TO ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT WILL DAMAGE THE RETINA SO YOU KNOW DOING DUMB STUFF LIKE STARING AT THE SUN FOR A LONG PERIOD OF TIME GAY HERE YAEYAMA BURNING FEELING IN A BURNING IN THE BACK YOUR EYES YOU THAT'S THAT THAT'S A BAD FEELING STOP LOOKING AT THE SUN THANK YOU I KNOW IT'S A PRETTY ECLIPSE STOP AT THE OKAY ARM PRICE SO PEOPLE THAT THE THING WITH COLOURBLINDNESS AS A PEOPLE THINK YOU KNOW IF I IF I AM RED GREEN COLOURBLIND I CAN'T TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RED AND GREEN WELL YES AND NO WORK MEANS IS THAT IT IS MUCH MUCH MORE DIFFICULT FOR SOMEONE THAT IS RED GREEN COLOURBLIND TO TELL THE DIFFERENCE IF YOU'VE GOT A GREEN NUMBER WITH A RED SURROUNDING IT MAKES IT MUCH MORE DIFFICULT TO TELL IF THE CONTRASTS ARE SIMILAR IT IS DIFFICULT TO TELL WHAT THAT NUMBER IS WITH THAT BACKGROUND INTERFERING SO COLOURBLINDNESS IS MORE ABOUT THE FACT THAT YOUR EYE IS UNABLE TO TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE COLOURS IN A VERY VERY NARROW AREA SO IF YOU TAKE IT TAKE THE NUMBER AWAY FROM THE RED BACKGROUND AND PUT A GREEN NUMBER ON SAY A GREY BACKGROUND THEN MOST PEOPLE ARE COLOURBLIND WOULD BE ABLE TO TELL WHAT NUMBER IT WAS ALSO IT'S NOT A COMPLETE INABILITY TO TELL BECAUSE THE I CAN STILL SENSE DIFFERENCE IS IN CONTRAST JUST MEANS THAT IF YOU HAVE COLOURS THAT ARE VERY SIMILAR IN RED AND GREEN SCALE AND THEY ARE DIRECTLY ADJACENT TO EACH OTHER THERE I WILL HAVE DIFFICULTY IN DISCERNING THE BOUNDARY SO THAT'S KIND OF A BIG DEAL ANYHOW GOTTA KEEP THAT IN MIND SO PSYCHE BECAUSE SENDING READ EXACTLY YOU YOU CAN STILL USE THAT THEIR EYES CAN STILL COMPENSATE TO A POINT WHICH THEY CAN MAKE OUT THE SHAPES NO PROBLEM THEY CAN MAKE OUT WHAT THE WORDS WOULD SAY BUT IF SOMEONE SAID IS THAT RED THEN THEY WOULD LOOK AT THAN THEY WOULD STRUGGLE AND SAY WELL YOU KNOW I'M NOT SURE YET AND YOU PUT IT AGAINST THE CERTAIN OTHER COLOURS AND THEY JUST HAVE A HARD TIME SEEING THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO YET BECAUSE PEOPLE THINK YAYA RED GREEN MEANS I CAN'T USE RED I CAN'T USE GREEN AS AN OWNER KNOW THAT THE REASON THEY CALL IT RED GREEN FOR EXAMPLE BLUE YELLOW AS IT'S THE DISCERNING BETWEEN THE TWO THAT BECOMES DIFFICULT SO IF YOU OCCUR BECAUSE IT'S VERY RARE FOR PEOPLE TO BE COMPLETELY MONOCHROMATIC RIGHT WHERE THEY CAN'T SENSE ANY CORRIDOR THAT IS EXTREMELY RARE STILL HAPPENS BUT IT IS RARE SO YOU USUALLY WILL HAVE SOME FUNCTIONING RECEPTORS OF THOSE COLOURS BUT THEY'LL BE HIGHLY DEFICIENT SO THEY TEND TO GET OVERWHELMED BY THE OTHERS SO YOU WILL SENSE YOU KNOW ALL YOUR GREENS AND BLUES WHICH ONE SENDS ANYONE YELLOW SOAKING 60 TO SIGNIFY PERCENT A READY MARKET TO A 3% OF THE RED ARE OF YOUR ARE RED CONES WILL BE WORKING CORRECTLY AND THEREFORE THE GREEN WILL SWAMP THE RED YOU ARE SO NOT NOTHING IS BLACK AND WHITE NOTHING IS AS STRAIGHTFORWARD AS CLEAR CUT AS SIMPLE AS YOU WOULD LIKE TO THINK SO IT'S MORE ABOUT AN AWARENESS OF THE WAY IN WHICH YOU CHOOSE YOUR CONTRAST LEVELS AND THE WAY IN WHICH YOU CHOOSE YOUR COLOUR SCHEMES WHEN YOU'RE REPRESENTING TEXTUAL INFORMATION THAT IS MORE OF THE ISSUE THAN THE RAW COLOUR ITSELF IF THAT MAKES SENSE GET UP AT SO ARE ANYWAY THIS ARM IS A GREAT ARTICLE ARM BY STEVE DREW ARE IS ONLY A DRAFT ARTICLE BUT I WAS ABLE THE IDIOT BROUGHT IN A LOT OF FENCING CONCEPTS AND I FOUND MY NEW FAVOURITE ARE THREE LETTER ACRONYMS IT'S THAT JND DO NOT DENY THAT MEANS JND JND ADULT THEY COULD DO IT STANDS FOR JUST NOTICEABLE DIFFERENCE OKAY BUT THE MUSIC NOW I FAISAL OF MINA TONGUE IN CHEEK BUT IN OUR GREAT SO IT'S THE BUT JUST NOTICEABLE DIFFERENCE RIGHT SO THE NSN JUST ENOUGH THAT THAT I CAN TELL THE DIFFERENCE BUT ANYHOW ARE IT'S DO AND THAT WAS BEING USED IN REFERENCE TO CONTRAST SENSITIVITY SO IT AND WHEN I SAY THAT I'M IN AND IN TERMS OF PERCEPTION OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LUMINANCE NOW IN STEVE'S OUR ARTICLE HE REFERS TO MOST PEOPLE BEING OUR PERCEIVED DIFFERENCES IN LIMITS BETWEEN 2 TO 4% ARE FINE TO BE MISLEADING BECAUSE IN MY EXPERIENCE IT'S MORE LIKE 10 TO 20% AND THE REASON I SAY THAT IS IT'S BECAUSE EVERYTHING IS RELATIVE TO THE IMMEDIATELY ADJACENT COMPACT COMPARED ITEM OR COMPARED COLOUR SO FOR EXAMPLE IF I PUT A SHADE OF GREY NEXT TO ANOTHER SHADE OF GREY AND THEY ARE RIGHT NEXT TO EACH OTHER OR EVEN NOT THAT FAR APART YOU LIKE 10 OR 2030 PIXELS APPOINTS APART YOUR EYE YOUR BRAIN WILL BE TELL THE DIFFERENCE QUITE STRIKE DROP QUITE MARKEDLY I WOULD BELIEVE THE 2 TO 4% IN NO MUDGUARD BUT I BELIEVE MY TEMP 70 I BELIEVE IT AT THAT SORT OF LEVEL BUT IF YOU'RE GOING TO THEN SAY HERE IS SCREEN NUMBER ONE IT'S GOT A BOX AND THAT BOX IS 10% GREY I THEN GO TO THE NEXT SCREEN AND IT IS A BOX AND IS 12% GREY DONATELLI WHICH IS WHICH YOUR TUMMY WHICH IS DARKER BECAUSE THEY'RE NOT IN FRONT OF YOU AT THE SAME TIME I THINK I HAVE A KIND TEXT THAT'S RIGHT SO THE BRAIN CAN DISCERN RELATIVE DIFFERENCES IN LUMINANCE AND IN CONTRAST SENSITIVITY CERTAINLY WHEN THE NEXT TO EACH OTHER IMMEDIATELY ADJACENT FRONTIER THE SAME TIME BUT IF YOU GO BETWEEN PAGES AND BID AND IF YOU WANT TO DEAL WITH ABSOLUTES AND SAY 20% GREY HAS THIS MEANING 40% GREY HAS THIS MEANING SIX AND GREY HAS THIS MEANING IF YOU TAKE ALL THOSE IN THE CONSIDERATION YOU WOULD YOU'LL FIND OUT THAT I'LL ACTUALLY IT'S NOT 2 TO 4% IT'S MY TEMP 20% IT'S IT'S REALLY QUITE BAD NOW NOT SUGGESTING THAT YOU SHOULD BE DESIGNING YOUR YELLOW JEWEL'S CHOOSING YOUR COLOUR PALETTE BASED ON THAT YEAR IN TERMS OF OPERATOR COMPREHENSION WHEN DOING A SCAR SYSTEM BUT AS THE TENDENCY IN OUR ME IN MY INDUSTRY IS TO GO TOWARDS MORE OF A GREYSCALE AND A SON IS HAPPEN ON THE MAC ARE ON THE OS X ARE ADMINISTERED AT OS 10 FORM WHEN YOU GET CRUCIFIED BAR FOR THAT LITTLE SLIP AND IT HAPPENS AS IT DOES ANYWAY SO YOU CAN LOOK AT THAT AND YOU SAY WELL I'VE GOT A GREYSCALE AND YELLOW 20% GREY IT MEANS THIS AND INVOICE AND MEAN SOMETHING ELSE AND YOU'RE TEMPTED TO DO THAT DON'T DO IT YOU KNOW BECAUSE MOST PEOPLE JUST ARE COMPLAINING IT LOOKS THE SAME OR WORSE I DON'T REMEMBER WHAT IT MEANS YOU LIKE I SAID THE LIGHT BEFORE YOU IF YOU'RE BLINKING OUT MORSE CODE TO CONVEY INFORMATION YOU DOING IT WRONG AND IF YOU GOT FIVE LEVELS OF GREY TO DETERMINE FIVE DIFFERENT STATES FOR ONE DEVICE YOU'RE DOING IT WRONG SORRY BUT THIS IS THE WRONG WAY TO DO IT BECAUSE IT BECAUSE BRAZIL LOOKS AS THOUGH MODERATE REMEMBER ANYWAY I NEED THE USER MANUAL AND A WHOLE THAT YOU KNOW THE COLOUR SWATCHES YOU'LL GET AN ADULT I WAS LSA PHL EXAMPLE GO AT SAID THAT SAID IS LIKE I CAN OPERATE MY SCAR SYSTEM IS MY VALVE OPEN OR CLOSED ARE THE SHADE OF THE VALVE SHOWS YOU HOW OPEN OR CLOSE THE VALVE BUSINESS SCALE ZERO HUNDRED PERCENT SO IT'S GREYNESS CHANGES INTO ETHANOL EVALUATOR WHERE YOU GETTING ME WHAT'S WRONG WITH YOU/YOUR ALIBI DON'T DO THAT CRAZY PEOPLE ANYWAY ARM KNOW I HAVE NEVER DONE THAT NO I HAVE NEVER SEEN THAT DONE AND I HOPE TO GOD I NEVER SEE THAT DONE BUT IT IS THE OF QUOTE UNQUOTE COOL IDEA THAT A YOUNG PROGRAMMER WOULD COME UP WITH IT WOULD BE DIZZY AT BEST NO NO IT WOULDN'T DON'T OKAY ALL RIGHT OR IS THAT LEADS ME TO THE IDEA OF HOW BIG ARE YOUR PALETTE SIZE SHOULD BE AND THIS IS GONNA BE VERY HOTLY DEBATED THAT YOU KNOW TO BE HONEST ARM I TRY AND STICK TO LESS THAN 10 COLOURS IF I CAN ARM AND I MEAN 10 COLOURS IN THE ENTIRE SCAR SYSTEM IF YOU HAVE TOO MANY YEAR END UP HAVING TO HAVE A LEGEND OR A LOOK UP TABLE OR MANUAL HANDY IN ORDER TELL THE DIFFERENCE MOST PEOPLE WON'T REMEMBER AND THEY CAN'T TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THAT 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LY NDA.COM/PRAGMATIC THANK YOU ONCE AGAIN TO LYNDA.COM FOR SPONSORING PRAGMATIC OKAY SKEWER MORE FOR THEM THAN IS ACTUALLY A GREEK WORD AND INSERT YOU CONJUNCTION TWO DIFFERENT WORDS MEANING SHAPED CONTAINER OR CONTAINER SHAPE OR SHAPELY CONTAINING THINGY ANYWAY SKEWER DWARFISM IS THEREFORE BEING SKEWER MORE THICK I SKEWER MORPHED THEREFORE I AM ALSO LIKE THAT AND ARE OKAY OKAY ARE A HOUR ANYWAY SO AT SCHOOL AT THAT WILL READ THIS CAREFULLY PREPARED GOOD IDEA THERE OBVIOUSLY I'M TALKING ABOUT AS IT APPLIES TO USER INTERFACES DIGITALLY NEVER LET THE WORD OF COURSE PREDATES COMPUTERS AND PREDATES SCAR SYSTEMS AND USER INTERFACE DESIGN IT'S JUST IT'S BEEN ADOPTED BY THE COMMUNITY TO REFER TO ANYTHING THAT RESEMBLES SOMETHING IN THE REAL WORLD BEING REPRESENTED IN A VIRTUAL WORLD GREEN FELT AND FOLLOW THE FURTHER WHEN YEAH THAT KIND OF THING NOW BECAUSE I'M BEING FAR MORE SIMPLISTIC I'M TALKING ABOUT REPRESENTING A BUTTON SO WE CAN REPRESENT A BUTTON AND OPERATE A BUTTON AS YOU WOULD DO SO IN THE REAL WORLD BUT HERE'S THE FIRST PROBLEM WHEN SCALLOP THAT FIRST CAME OUT TOUCHSCREENS WERE JUST NOT A THING WE HAD LIGHT PENS YEAH LIKE PENS BUT EVEN LIGHT PENS DIDN'T QUITE HAVE THE SAME SORT OF IMPACT ALTHOUGH THEY DID DO THE WHOLE BUTTON ON THE BUTTON DEPRESSING THING WHEN YOU TAPPED ON THE BUTTON WITH YOUR LIGHT PEN BUT SERIOUSLY WASN'T THAT GREAT EVEN WITH TOUCHSCREENS YOU YOU DON'T PHYSICALLY GET DEPRESSED THE BUTTON THIS NOTE THAT MOST SYSTEMS WITH TOUCHSCREENS DO NOT HAVE TACTIC YOU ARE SO HAPTIC FEEDBACK SO WHAT YOU'RE LEFT WITH IS YOUR LEFT WITH A VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF YOUR FINGER TOUCHING THE SCREEN OR FAR MORE COMMONLY THE MOUSE CURSOR ON THE LEFT MOUSE BUTTON BEING SELECTED BEING PRESSED DOWN AND RELEASED AND THE BUTTON WILL VISUALLY APPEAR IT OVER 3D EFFECTS TYPICALLY THAT SHOWS THE BUTTON YET IT LOOKS 3D AS THOUGH IT'S POPPING UP OUT OF THE PAGE OUT OF THE SCREEN AND YOU PRESS THE BUTTON AND IT LOOKS LIKE IT'S DEPRESSING GOING FLAT IN SOME SYSTEMS SCAR SYSTEMS OR SOME OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS IT'LL LOOK LIKE IT STARTS OUT FLUSH WITH THE SCREEN YOU PUSH THE BOND LOOKS LIKE IT'S GETTING DEPRESSED DEEP BACK INTO THE SCREEN EITHER WAY THERE'S A 3D SKEWER MORE THICK EFFECT THAT MIMICS WHAT A PUSHBUTTON LOOKS LIKE IN THE REAL WORLD WHEN YOU PRESS IT SO THE THING IS WHY DOES THAT MATTER BECAUSE IT'S NOT REALLY A BUTTON YOU KNOW YOU SO DOESN'T MATTER EXCEPT IT DOES MATTER FACT IT REALLY DOES MATTER BECAUSE IT LOWERS THAT BARRIER OF ENTRY FOR NEW USERS SO SOMEONE COMES ALONG THEY LOOK AT IT AND IT'S A BUTTON YET THEY KNOW WHAT A BUTTON LOOKS LIKE THE BENTLEY BUTTONS AND PEOPLE THINK YOU KNOW WELL WHEN DO I LEARN WHAT A BUTTON IS A CABLE THINK ABOUT WHAT WAS THE FIRST TIME YOU EVER PUSHED A BUTTON NOW IF YOU'RE OLD OLD CHEESE THAT WAS DON'T KNOW HOW TO SAY IF YOU'RE OLD BUT WHY CHAIRED A CRANKY OLD GUY WHEN I WAS BORE AND I SORT OF THING BUT NO SERIOUSLY WHEN YOU PUSH A BUTTON ON THE PHONE AND ON AN OLD-STYLE TELEPHONE AND I'M NOT A MATTER ROTARY DIAL WE YOU PUT YOUR FINGER ON A WHOLE NEW SPIN THE DIAL AROUND THE NEW WAIT FOR IT TO GO PROHIBITED AT THAT DIVIDEND EDITED EDITOR THAT OR IF YOU'RE IMPATIENT YOU DID DRAG IT RIGHT YOU GO YES OUT AFFECTING IT'S TERRIBLE WHATEVER THEY MADE THE ANNOUNCEMENT THAT I DO THAT TO YOU WILL THE ROTARY DIAL MUST EDUCATE SEVERAL WERE THERE WE HAD FOR A DAY. WE HAD WHAT WAS CALLED PULSE MODE YOU AND IT WAS IT WAS PUSHBUTTON PHONES THAT ACTUALLY RECREATED AGNES WAS IDEAL SKEWER DWARFISM EVERY CREATED VIA THE ROTARY SENSATION YET IT WAS A YA TELEPHONE EXCHANGE PROBLEM BECAUSE A TELEPHONE EXCHANGE WAS STILL WAITING TO HEAR THE AUDIBLE CLICKING NOISE SO THEY HAD TO CREATE PHONES AND SO IT NEEDED IT TO YOU SOME TELEPHONE EXCHANGES DIDN'T DO EXCEPT TOUCHTONE SO THAT WAS THE PROBLEM IS THAT THE PHONE IS ADVANCED FASTER THAN THE TELEPHONE EXCHANGES CAN BE RETROFITTED WITH DTMF ARE GEAR INTERESTING MR SCHEIBER THAT AT SOME POINT IN RIGHT YES BUT YES WE DID HAVE THOSE AND EI ARE RIGHT GOOD LOVELY SO ARMED THAT THERE IS THAT BUTTON BUT IS THE OTHER ONE DOORBELLS BELOW DOORBELLS RIGHT YOU GOT PUSHBUTTON THE DOORBELL OKAY ARM NOW WHEN GOING IN AND OUT OF THE CAR PARK LET'S SAY IN THE CAR PARK IS HAS METERED ACCESS AND HAS AN ACCESS BOOM GATE YOU PUSHBUTTON IT WAS A DO IT DISPENSES A TICKET THERE ARE DOZENS IF NOT HUNDREDS OF EXAMPLES I CAN GIVE YOU OF PUSHBUTTONS IN THE HOME IN THE WORKPLACE OUT ABOUT THE SHOPPING CENTRE SHOPPING MALL YOU WALL AT WHATEVER IN OUR TOGGLE SWITCH IS FAR MORE COMMON OF COURSE BECAUSE EVERYONE NOW LIGHT SWITCHES APPROVED THE MOST COMMON KIND OF SWITCH THAT PEOPLE OPERATE BUT ULTIMATELY YOU KNOW A PUSHBUTTON OR A TOGGLE SWITCH PEOPLE LEARN WHAT THEY ARE FROM A YOUNG AGE 56789 YEARS OLD SABELLA TIME TO START USING A COMPUTER THE IDEA OF A BUTTON THAT LOOKS SOMETHING LIKE WHAT THEY'VE ALREADY LEARNED HOW TO USE IN THE REAL WORLD MEANS THAT THEY UNDERSTAND INHERENTLY WHAT THAT DOES SEE YOU PUSH THAT IT'S GOT TOGGLE THE STATE IF IT'S A LIGHT TURNS LIGHT ON AND OFF YOU KNOW IVAN'S ENCLOSED DOOR RINGS THE DOORBELL WHATEVER IT IS RIGHT AND THAT'S WHY SKEWER DWARFISM MATTERS BECAUSE IT LOWERS THAT BARRIER OF ENTRY IT MAKES IT EASIER FOR PEOPLE TO LEARN SO IF YOU'RE ALL ABOUT HIS MANUAL READ THE MANUAL FIGURE IT OUT FIRST OF ALL PURE JERK SECOND OF ALL YOU KNOW AND I WERE YOU WORKING FOR ME AND THIRDLY, GOD ARM IF YOU'RE IF YOUR JOB IS TO MAKE SAYING THAT LOOKS VISUALLY BEAUTIFUL AT THE EXPENSE OF BEING EASY TO LEARN AND THEN AGAIN I WOULD SUGGEST YOU DOING IT WRONG OKAY SO ABOUT BALANCE IT IS ALL ABOUT BALANCE ABSOLUTELY SO JUST QUICKLY AS A SIDE BEYOND SKARDA LAST YEAR IN THE APPLE WORLD THERE IS A BIG KERFUFFLE BECAUSE APPLE INTRODUCED IOS SEVEN AND WHAT TO DO IN IOWA SEVEN VIC BUTTONS THAT LOOK LIKE BUTTONS ANYMORE NO MEDIANS THEY REMOVED A LOT IF NOT YOU WOULD ARGUE ALMOST ALL OF THE SKEWER MORE FEES FROM IOS LOTTA PEOPLE VARY CRANKY PANTS WHEN THAT HAPPENED SO AND I TOTALLY UNDERSTAND WHY BECAUSE SUDDENLY BUTTONS AND LOOK LIKE BUTTONS ANYMORE IS THE TEXT YET IT WAS A DRASTIC CHANGE IT WAS AND IS THAT REGARDLESS OF WHETHER YOUR PRO ECONOMY THAT THE CHANGE WAS DRASTIC AND THERE WAS AN ADJUSTMENT EXACTLY OKAY SO HERE'S THE THING I'VE BEEN WORKING ON A BUNCH OF DIFFERENT PROJECTS IN MY CAREER WHERE PEOPLE THOUGHT IT WOULD BE JUST SO AWESOME TO HAVE TEXT THAT IS SELECTABLE BUT IT'S A BUTTON BUT IS TEXT BUT IS A BUTTON BUT IS TEXT BUT YOU'RE NOT GETTING IT IT'S A BUTTON BUT IT'S TEXT AND UNLIKE NO IT'S TEXT OR IT'S A BUTTON WHAT'S TEXT OVERLAID ON TOP OF THE BUTTON BUT IF IT'S A BUTTON IT HAS TO LOOK LIKE A GOD DAMN BUTTON OKAY BUTTON IS A BUTTON IS A BUTTON IS A BUTTON WHY BECAUSE THAT IS A SKEWER MORE THICK USER INTERFACE PARADIGMS FOR WHOLE BUZZWORD BINGO AND PEOPLE UNDERSTAND IT SO IF I AM IF I WERE SCREEN FULL OF TEXT AND ONE WORD OF IT LET'S SAY THE WORD HELLO IS ACTUALLY A BUTTON WHEN YOU CLICK A LOWER TURNS THE LIGHTS IN THE ROOM ON AND OFF HOW YOU KNOW THAT SELECTABLE IF IT'S JUST TEXT AND ATTACK EXACTLY SAME AS ALL THE REST THE TEXT IN GRANADA OR THE KEY THERE WOULD BE TO MAKE THAT TEXT NOT LIKELY, REST OF THE TEXT WHILE YES OF COURSE HOLD THAT THOUGHT FOR A MOMENT LET'S SAY YOU'RE AN IDIOT, I DO SUGGEST AN IMMEDIATE NOTE THAT NOT ALL ANNUITY BECAUSE IT CANNOT BE THE RIGHT ANSWER NOT ONLY IN AND ONTO ABOUT THAT IT IS THE DESIGN DISCUSS SYSTEMS THAT I'M THINKING OF THIS TO A PARTICULAR I'M THINKING OF RIGHT NOW AND YOU WANT THE TEXT IS EXACTLY THE SAME IN EVERY WAY SUMMER SELECTABLE SUM ISN'T SAME FONT SAME CAPITALISATION SAME COLOUR SAYING THAT HE – SAME EVERYTHING AND I POINTED THIS OUT TO THEM AND THEY SAID WILL THAT'S OF THE USER MANUALS FOR THE NIGHT COME CLOSE ARROW CLOSE AS I CAN SLAP YOU YOU KNOW SO THERE ARE PEOPLE IS WHY SAY THAT I WISH THE GOODNESS THAT THERE WAS MORE OF THIS CROSS CROSSOVER OF PEOPLE HAVE DONE LIKING IOS AND AN WINDOWS PHONE AND AN ANDROID DEVELOPMENT COMING ACROSS INTO SKYLER TO PROVIDE SOME DEGREE OF SANITY IN USER INTERFACE DESIGN BECAUSE SO MANY TO BE A JUST DON'T GET IT OKAY AND NOT SUGGESTING I GET EVERYTHING EITHER ON IT'S A LEARNING CURVE IS IS THAT IN TERMS OF MY MY PLACE THE LEARNING CURVE ALIKE TO THINK FURTHER ALONG WHEN IT COMES THE USER INTERFACE STUFF BECAUSE I'VE DONE I HAD A FOOT IN BOTH CAMPS ANYWAY ALL RIGHT SO PLEASE DON'T DO THAT ANY BECAUSE YOU WAY TO SOLVE THAT WITH HTML RIGHT THEY ARE NOT AS GRINDER AND AND USUALLY CHANGE THE COLOUR AS WELL WITH A DIFFERENT CONTRAST SO YOU KNOW IT'S NOT LIKE THIS IS A NEW ISSUE THAT IS JUST ONLY BEEN DISCOVERED THIS IS SOMETHING I FIGURED OUT A LONG TIME AGO IDLS HTML HOW LONG IS THE WEB MIO 20+ YEARS AGO SO DISCUSSES HAS BEEN AROUND 20 TO 30 YEARS THIS IS NOT A NEW PROBLEM THIS HAS BEEN SOLVED WELL AND TRULY SOLVED AND THEY'RE STILL SCREWING IT UP SO PLEASE MAKE YOUR BUTTONS LOOK LIKE THEY'RE A BUTTON SO I CAN TELL THAT THERE ARE BUTTON CHEERS THANKS SO MUCH REALLY APPRECIATE IT AGAIN NEXT THING HOW DO I DIFFERENTIATE MY BUTTON WELL GUESS WHAT WE HAD LABELS BEFORE SO DIGITALLY HOW DO WE DO THAT WELL YOU SCREEN REAL ESTATE IS AT A PREMIUM IT'S ALWAYS AT A PREMIUM I CARE WHAT YOU SAY SCREEN REAL ESTATE IS ALWAYS A NEEDS TO BE CAREFULLY CONSIDERED SKARDA IS NO DIFFERENT SO WE WANTED DO YOU WANT A BEACON YOU WANT TO BE EFFICIENT SO WHAT ARE WE GOING DOING A TRY AND PUT THE TEXT THAT DESCRIBES WHAT THE BUTTON DOES ON THE BUTTON RATHER THAN UNDERNEATH IT OR TO THE SITE OF THE NETWORKS ARE LONG AS IT FITS BECAUSE OTHERWISE IF YOU IF YOUR TEXT IS PUSH THIS BUTTON AND SOMETHING EXCITING WILL HAPPEN WITH YOUR BUTTONS GONNA BE ABOUT 500 PIXELS LONG AND ABOUT 20 PIXELS HIGH WELL THAT IS PROBABLY NOT AN OPTIMAL WAY OF DOING THINGS WHEREAS IF THE BUTTON IS SIMPLY FORWARD AND REVERSE AND THEN RECENTLY ADJACENT TO THE BUTTON YOU HAVE SO YOUR LINED BUTTONS HORIZONTALLY ONE IS NEXT TO THE OTHER AND ONCE AS FORWARD ONCE AS REVERSE AND NEXT TO IT SAYS MOTOR MCP-1 171 AS I OKAY SO THAT'S THAT MOTOR THERE FORWARD AND REVERSE GOT OUT RATHER THAN HAVING MOTOR 1171 FORWARD AND THEN MOTOR 1171 REVERSE NEXT TO EACH OF THE BUTTONS INDIVIDUALLY AND HAVING NARROW BUTTONS SITES OF MORE EFFICIENT USE OF SPACE TO ALIGN THINGS UP AS AGREED AND TO GROUP THEM AND THEN TO KEEP THE AMOUNT TEXT ON THE BUTTON TO A MINIMUM SO WE WILL TAKE IT TOO FAR AND ARE NOW START ABBREVIATING MEN ABBREVIATIONS ARE CONSISTENT SO I'VE COME ACROSS A SYSTEM DISCUSS SYSTEMS WHERE THEY HAVE HAD FWD AND F RD AND THEY BOTH STAND FORWARD AND MIKE OKAY DRAGO DAMIANO AS I DROPPED THE SAME LETTERS OUT OF EACH THEM PLEASE IT'S NOT ROCKET SCIENCE ANYHOW SO YOU CONSISTENCY THAT'S WHAT I'M ASKING THIS ONE MIGHT JUST BE CONSISTENT PLEASE OKAY HERE'S ONE THAT I'VE COME ACROSS CHANGING THE TEXT LIVE ON A BUTTON HOW THAT IS FRAUGHT WITH DANGER WHY WHAT WIRED BEFORE I EXPLAIN WHY I THINK IT'S FRAUGHT WITH DANGER WHY YOU THINK THAT WILL BE FRAUGHT WITH DANGER SO ONE INTEREST MAKES ROMA UNCLEAR IS I PUSH A BUTTON AND AS A BUTTON THE TEXT ON THE BUTTON CHANGES ITS STATE AS WELL AS A BUTTON CHANGING ESTATE NOW WHY WOULD YOU GIVE ME A LITTLE MORE CONTEXT. ARM THIS IS WHEN THE TAX CHANGES AS ARE CHANGING THE FUNCTION AND PURPOSE OF THE BOWDEN LODGE IS CHANGING TO REFLECT THE STATUS OF WHATEVER THE BUTTON REPRESENTS OKAY WHAT IT IS IS LET'S SAY YOU'VE GOT A BUTTON THAT REPRESENTS THE YEAR ON AND OFF OF A LIGHT TOUCH SO WHEN THE BUTTON IS ARM WEBBER IS IN A GIVEN STATE IS SAYS ON YOU CLICK IT WHEN IT SAYS ON THE TEXT CHANGES TO OFF Then YOU CLICK THAT THE BUTTON WAS AS OFTEN IN THE TEXT HAS BACKED ON ARM THAT THAT'S A TRICKY ONE IT MOST PEOPLE USUALLY IN A TAPED SITUATION OFTEN WITH PLEA PATHS BUTTON FOR THE SAME KIND OF THING ARM THEY USUALLY HAVE TO PUSH IT ONCE OR TWICE TO FIGURE OUT WHICH STATE IS BEING REFLECTED YOU EXACTLY BECAUSE THEY DON'T KNOW WERE LATE AND THAT THIS ONE OF THE THINGS THAT APPLES DONE THAT ACTUALLY ANNOYS ME BECAUSE I'M ON MOST OF THEIR DEVICES WHEN YOU'RE PLAYING YOU SEE THE PATHS BUTTON TO INDICATE PIES AND WHEN YOUR PRIVATE USE OF THE PLAY BUTTON AND INDICATE THE COMPLETION TO PLAY BUT THE APPLE TV DOES THAT BACKWARDS CONTRARY TO EVERYTHING ELSE THEY GO WHEN IT'S PLAYING IT SHOWS YOU THE PLAY BUTTON AND WHEN IT'S PASSED THIS SHOWS YOUR BOSS MIGHT EXACTLY SO IT COMES BACK TO ARM USER INTERFACE LIKE SPACE SPACE EFFICIENCY THE PROBLEM I'VE GOT WITH THAT WHOLE IDEA OF CHANGING THE BUTTON TEXT IS THE FIRST QUESTION THAT COMES TO THE MIND OF AN OPERATOR IS SO DOES THE TEXT ON MEAN THAT IT'S CURRENTLY ON WHAT IS IT MEAN IF I PUSH THE BATTLESHIP DETERRENT IT WILL TURN ON EITHER WILL DO LIKE YOU SAID TOGGLE ON OFTEN ON OFTEN NOT UNTIL I FIGURE OUT WHAT IT DOES YEAH THAT'S THE WAY THAT YOU SHOULD DO ALL OF YOUR CONTROL SYSTEM OPERATIONS BY TRIAL AND ERROR ALL SHOULD I SHOW ICELANDIC GAS RIGHT NOW LET'S SEE ON THAT BIG FLAME OFF THAT FLAMES OFF OUR KNOW WHICH WAY AROUND THE BUTTON IS NOW SOLD OKAY IF YOU IF AT SOME POINT YOU THINK THAT YOU SHOULD DO YOUR DAMN CONTROL SYSTEM AGAIN COME CLOSER SO I CAN SLAP YOU KNOW I'M IN I'M A FIRM BELIEVER THAT CHANGING TEXT ON BUTTONS IS JUST A BAD IDEA TAKE UP THE EXTRA SPACE AND PUT IT ON AND OFF BUTTON OR BETTER STILL DON'T USE A BUTTON USE A USE IN ON-OFF INDICATIONS AS I GO YEARS AGO ARE SIMILAR TO WHAT APPLE OF GOD ON NONE THEIR SLIGHT OPEN-ENDED CONTROL NOT NECESSARILY SEGMENTING CONTROL IT'S A STANDARD USER INTERFACE AND INCEST UI BUTTON IS A SLIDER SWITCH SO YOU YOU TAP ON IT AND IT CHANGES STATE IT GOES FROM GREEN BUT ALSO THE SLIGHT INDICATOR GOES FROM LEFT TO RIGHT YOU LIKE IT MORE TRADITIONAL NORTH AMERICAN SLIDER LIGHT SWITCH STYLE YET THAT WAS THAT WOULD COVER THAT YOU ARE TOGGLE UI TOGGLE THANK YOU SO IS MINIMISING YOU WELL A CLEAR FOCUS THERE IS A YOU A SLIDER THAT'S LIKE WHAT YOU SEE IS VOLUME YEAH YOU'RE RIGHT I'M SORRY I'M GETTING MY TERMINALS AS A SCOTSMAN WAS AS A PROGRAM YOU YOUR UI SEGMENT CAN SEGMENTING CONTROL IS THE DIFFERENT ONE IS THE YEAR THAT WE CAN HAVE 2345 WHATEVER ELSE AND YOU YOU HAVE WANTED SELECTS AND HIGHLIGHTS THAT ONE AND ON HIGHLIGHTS THE OTHERS LIKE RADIO BUTTONS YOU LIKE RADIO BUTTONS AUSTRALIA'S EXACT ANYWAY OKAY SO THAT'S OUT THE TEXT ON THE BUTTON BUT THERE IS ANOTHER ARM IS NO ISSUE WITH THAT SO LONG AS YOU GOT YOUR INVERTED LOGICAL MEANING VERSUS TAKES THE CORRECT LOT LOGICAL MEETING SO EVEN IF IT'S NOT ON THE BUTTON WHATEVER TEXT NEXT TO THE BUTTON SO ARE ALL YOUNG AND ERROR OR IN THE CASE OF AN ELVEN INDICATOR KNOW SO LITTLE LET'S DO THIS WHEN INDICATOR FOR SECOND SO IF THE INDICATOR IS ON THE TEXT NEXT TO THE BUTTON IS GENERALLY SHOULD BE CONSIDERED TO BE TRUE SUCH THAT IF YOU HAVE INDICATOR ON IT SAYS MOTOR IN FAULT OKAY SO WHEN THE LAW INDICATOR IS ON MOTOR IS IN FAULT OKAY SO WHAT ARE THE FLIPSIDE OF THAT MOTOR HEALTHY SO IF THE LIGHT IS ON YOU WOULD THINK OKAY MOTOR IS HEALTHY THAT SOME PEOPLE WILL PROGRAMMER THE OTHER WAY ROUND SAYING A LIGHT ON EQUALS BAD WHAT IS THIS LIGHT INDICATING OURS INDICATING THE HEALTH OF THE MOTOR THEREFORE MOTOR HEALTHY IS LIKE OUR KNOW YOU'VE INVERTED THE LOGICAL MEANING OF YOUR INDICATOR SO I HAVE ALWAYS PREFERRED TEXTUALLY CORRECT LOGICAL MEANING WHICH IS TO SAY THAT IF I HAVE A BUILT BINARY STATE OR FIBRE TEXTUAL CONDITION AT THAT THAT THAT THE HOW THAT TEXT READS IS STRING LITERALLY WHAT THE INDICATOR LIGHT MEANS IN ITS ON STATE AND A COMMON MISTAKE A LOT OF PEOPLE MAKE AND DISCUSS SYSTEMS IS THAT LOGICAL OFTEN COME INTO PLCS INVERTED SO RATHER THAN HAVING A PUSHBUTTON THAT MAKES A CONTACT IT'S ACTUALLY A PUSHBUTTON THAT BREAKS A CONTACT SO IF YOU LOOK AT DIGITAL INPUT THE DIGITAL INPUT WILL ALWAYS HAVE CURRENT FLOWING TO ALWAYS HAVE VOLTAGE APPLIED TO IT AND WAS SHARP AS A LOGICAL ONE YOU PUSH THE BUTTON IT BREAKS THE CIRCUIT IT DROPS TO 0 V YOU GET A ZERO INSTEAD THAT'S WHAT WE REFER TO AS FAILSAFE LOGIC BECAUSE IF YOU BREAK IN THE WIRE AND THAT THAT BUTTON IS FOR SOMETHING CRITICAL LIKE MY MACHINE STOP THEN YOU KNOW THAT LOGIC IS INVERTED SO OFTEN WHAT YOU'LL SEE IS YOUR SISTERS AND A SIDE IS START BUTTONS WILL BE YELLOW NORMALLY OPEN AND STOP ONES WE NORMALLY CLOSED THE IDEA IS THAT IF ANYTHING BREAKS A CIRCUITRY DAMAGE TO THE BUTTON DAMAGED THE CABLING DAMAGE THE CONNECTIONS ARE ALL THE INPUT AND THE SIGNAL GOES TO 0 THE BUTTON THE MACHINE WILL NATURALLY TEND TO STOP AND IN ORDER TO START THE MACHINE EVERYTHING MUST BE WELL HUNKY-DORY AND WORK EXPERIENCE YOU YOU SO THAT SO-CALLED FAILSAFE DESIGN RIGHT AND THEY'LL APPLY THAT TO LOGICAL INPUTS FOR FAULT STATUS OKAY SO THAT'S ALL WELL AND GOOD THEY BRING IN THE MACHINE THE EIGHT MOTORING FAULT OR MOTOR HEALTHY SO IN INDICATING ON A LOGICAL ONE BECAUSE IT IS INVERTED LOGIC BECAUSE IT'S FAILSAFE DESIGN WAS AT MEAN WELL LOGICAL ONE WILL MEAN ALL MY MOTOR IS HEALTHY SO IS ZERO AS IS OUT EXACTLY A FAULT STATE TO THE MISTAKE PEOPLE MAKE IS THEY BRING A HEALTHY INDICATOR IN THAT'S NOT WHAT YOU WHY DO YOU WHAT YOU WANT TO DO IS YOU WANT TO INDICATE WHEN THERE IS A FAULT CONDITION AND I'M MAKE A FEW REFERENCES TO ASM WHICH IS ABNORMAL SITUATION MANAGEMENT AND THAT'S ANOTHER WHOLE EPISODE AND OF ITSELF BUT ASM PRINCIPLES STATE THAT YOU SHOULD ONLY DRAW OPERATOR ATTENTION WHEN OBITER OPERATOR ATTENTION IS REQUIRED AND THAT MEANS THAT YOU DON'T WANT TO INDICATE THAT THERE IS A HEALTHY STATE YOU ONLY ONE INDICATOR ELONGATED EXCEPTIONS EXACTLY SO ANYWAY JUST ANOTHER INTERESTING ASIDE ABOUT NAMING CONVENTIONS AND CLARITY OKAY SO INDICATION INDICATION FOR STATE INDICATION FOR WARNING AND INDICATION FOR ALARM NOW THESE ARE ALL SUBTLY DIFFERENT THINGS SEEK AND INDICATE THE STATE OF THE SYSTEM THAT IS NEITHER A WARNING ARE NORA FAULT OR AN ALARM IT IS DEVICE RUNNING DEVICE ON IT DOESN'T MEAN ANYTHING IS WRONG IT'S JUST TELLING YOU THAT SOMETHING IS HAPPENING IT'S YOUR WINDOW INTO THE SYSTEM IT'S TELLING YOU YES THIS SENSOR AND THIS LOCATION TELLS ME SOMETHING IS WENT PAST LOVELY SO THAT'S OBVIOUSLY THE SIMPLEST ARE THE OBVIOUS THEN WE ARE TO TALK ABOUT YOU INDICATING FOR A WARNING INDICATING FOR ALARM NOW THEN THE ARGUMENT OF SOLID VERSUS FLASHING SO OVERLOADING INDICATORS AND ONCE OVERLOADING ON A MEAN IS YOU ARE HAVING MULTIPLE STATES DISPLAYED THROUGH A SINGLE INDICATION SO WHETHER YOU USE FLASHING LONG/SHORT/MORSE CODE FLASHING THROUGH WHATEVER OR ON-OFF SO SOLID VERSUS ON SOFA SOLID ON VERSUS ALOFT VERSUS SOME KIND OF FLASHING OVERLOADING INDICATORS LIKE YOU SAID BAD IDEA BUT HONESTLY ASM AS YOU READ ASM FLASHING IS ONLY FLASHING IS TO BE AVOIDED FLASHING DISTRACTS SO IF YOU HAVE A PART C GOT A SCREEN IN THE TOP LEFT CORNER SOMETHING IS FLASHING WITH THE BOTTOM RIGHT CORNER IS WHERE YOU HAVE A CURRENTLY HAVE GOT A FAULT THAT YOU'RE TRYING TO DEAL WITH THE FLASH IN THE TOP LEFT CORNER WILL DISTRACT YOU FROM WHAT'S IN THE BOTTOM RIGHT CORNER TRY TO FOCUS ON FLASHING TO BE USED VERY SPARINGLY NEXT THING JUST WANT TO QUICKLY COVER AND WERE RATHER GETTING CLOSE TO WHERE TO WRAPPING UP EYE I COULD GO ON AND ON BUT HONESTLY IT'S BETTER IF I'D RELIANCE ON STAGE OKAY SO ARE COMMAND RESPONSE IT IS ONE THAT DOESN'T OCCUR TO A LOT OF PEOPLE BECAUSE A LOT OF PEOPLE THINK WELL I CENTRE COMMANDS THE SYSTEM GETS IT DOES STUFF AND I SEE WHAT HAPPENS YOU KNOW I GET FEEDBACK TO SAY IT HAPPENED AGO REAL-WORLD SCENARIO THAT IS NEVER HOW IT WORKS EVER LATENCY IS REAL AND LATENCY OCCURS IN MULTIPLE LEVELS SO IF I GO AND INDICATE IF I CLICK ON THE BUTTON THAT SAYS START MOTOR THE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS GO SOMETHING LIKE THIS THE MOUSE AND THE MOUSE LEFT CLICK IS TRANSLATED BY THE SOFTWARE DISCUSS SOFTWARE AND THEN IT'S ASSEMBLES A MESSAGE THE MESSAGES ASSEMBLED TAKES A REAL AMOUNT OF TIME TO ASSEMBLE THAT MESSAGE AND YOU MAY BE REQUESTING ALARM IT MAY BE REQUESTING ALARM DATA YOUR TREND DATA WHATEVER FROM THE FROM THE PLC EXAMS AS A MESSAGE AND THEN MESSAGES THAT DOWN TO THE DEVICE THE DEVICE AND THE PLC THE ARTY ODYSSEUS WILL RECEIVE THAT MESSAGE DECODED UNPACK IT AND SAY RIGHT YOU ARE SET REQUEST FOR THIS BIT IN THIS MEMORY LOCATION GO SET YOURSELF THAT WILL HAVE A TIME DELAY THE NETWORK LATENCY CARRYING THAT PACKET OF DATA I'M ASSUMING IT'S CARRYOVER IS NOW SOME PACKET SWITCHED NETWORK OF SOME KIND OF TOGA DRINKS IF IT'S TOKEN RING THEN YOU GOTTA DELAY IS A FIXED DELAY BASED ON WHO GETS THE TOKEN AND WHEN WHATEVER SAME THING YOU DELAY ONCE IT'S IN THERE THESE THINGS HAVE WHAT THEY REFER TO AS A SCAN SCAN CYCLE SEVEN STARS SCAN SILENTLY AND SCAN CYCLE IF YOU INJECT NEW DATA AT A POINT EARLY LIKE BLAKE ARE AT A POINT IN THE SCAN SUCH THAT IT ALREADY HAPPENS IN OTHER WORDS THE CODE IS A REPAST THAT SCAN SCAN EVERY PAST THE BITTER CODES AFFECTED BY THE BIT YOU TO SET IS NOT IN A SEA UNTIL THE NEXT SCAN SO YOU HAVE A ONE SCAN THE LABOUR SCANDAL I COULD BE 25 MS IT COULD BE AS MUCH AS FIVE OR SIX SECONDS IN ODYSSEUS'S WILL TYPICALLY HAVE MULTIPLE SCAN CLASSES SUCH THAT ONE SCAN CLASS SCANS A FAST RATE C4 CODE AND ITS ENVIRONMENT IS EXECUTED QUICKLY AND OTHERWISE HAVE SLOWER SCAN CLASSES SO THE SCAN RATE COULD BE VARIABLE DEPENDING UPON WHAT PART OF MEMORY THE VARIABLE IT'S VERY VERBOSE WHEN THE VARIABLE IS IN THE MEMORY THE VARIABLE MEMORY IS ALL VERY GOOD GIFTS TO MANY VARIABLES ANYWAY OKAY SO ALL OF THAT THEN GOES OUT TO THE MOTOR SIGNALS THE MOTOR USUALLY THROUGH A COMMS COMMUNICATIONS BUS THESE DAYS TRADITIONALLY THROUGH HARD WHY SIGNALLING BATTLE TAKES TYLER THAT'S A VERY LONG AND THEN FINALLY THE MOTOR WILL RESPOND AND YOU'LL START POWELL GO TO THE MOTOR AND WILL PULL THE CONTACTOR OF CONTACT WILL TAKE TIME OUT TO ACTUATE AND THEN AS THAT CONTACT ACTUATES POWELL FLOW THE MATTER TO THE MOTOR THE MAGNETIC FIELD WALL WILL ESTABLISH THE CENTRE WILL START TO SPIN AND HEY PRESTO THE MAGIC OF MY CONTROL SYSTEM HAS STARTED MY ENGINE MIGHT MY MOTOR SORRY SPENDING HEY PRESTO BUT THAT'S NOT THE END OF THE STORY BECAUSE THEN YOU NEED AN AUXILIARY CONTACT THE CLOSES WITH THE CONTACTOR THEN BE FED BACK IN THE PLC TO TELL YOU YES INDEED MY CONTACTOR CLOSED AND IS VERY LIKELY MY MOTOR STARTED SPINNING STILL IN EVIDENCE AT SPINNING BUT DINNER AND THEN THAT NEEDS TO COME BACK IN A PACKET THAT SCAN BY THE BUYER'S GARTER SYSTEM AND THEN DISPLAYED ON THE SCREEN TO SHOW THAT YES IT IS RUNNING ALL RIGHT SO THAT'S AN EXAMPLE OF A LOCAL SYSTEM NOW TAKE THAT AND MAKE DEBORAH REMOTES ARE TELEMETRY UNIT NOW TO YOU WHICH IS A PLC LONG DISTANCE AWAY ARTY LONG DISTANCE AWAY NOW AND ADD IN A TELEMETRY SYSTEM THE FLIMSY SYSTEM DOES NOT COMMUNICATE IN A MATTER OF MILLISECONDS OR EVEN SECONDS IT'S IN MINUTES BECAUSE YOU GOTTA HOP BETWEEN FIVE DIFFERENT MOUNTAINTOPS IT'S A SIMPLEX CONNECTION I CENTRE PACKET AND IT COMES OUT THE OTHER END FIVE MINUTES LATER AND I THAT'S WHAT HAPPENS SO THEN WE THAT LEADS US TO A HUGE LATENCY HUGE TIME DELAY BETWEEN COMMAND AND RESPONSE SO COMMAND RESPONSE SYSTEMS I'VE SEEN A FEW SYSTEMS DONE RECENTLY WHERE THERE IS A BUTTON THAT IS USED AS A DUALPURPOSE INDICATOR AND IT IRRITATES THE LIVING YOU WHAT ARMY SO I DON'T FEEL LIKE GETTING BEATS OUT THIS WEEK BEING WAY SO COMMAND RESPONSE BUTTON HERE WE GO I CLICK THE BUTTON AND INDICATOR LIGHT ON THE LEFT IS TO INDICATOR LIGHT ONE LEFT ON THE RIGHT OF THE BUTTON THERE PHYSICALLY ON THE BUTTON INDICATOR LIGHT ON THE LEFT INDICATES SOLID ON I HAVE NOW COMMANDED IT TO TURN ON AFTER THE SIGNAL HAS BEEN RECEIVED IN THE RTU THE ACTION HAS BEEN APPLIED AND THEN RESPONDS BACK TO THE SCANNER AGAIN IT THEN TURNS ON THE RESPONSE ACKNOWLEDGED SO YOU GET A COMMAND RESPONSE TO INDICATORS ON A SINGLE BUTTON TO ACCOUNT THE TIME DELAY SO IS NOT RIGHT I CAN LOOK AT THE BUTTON I CAN OBJECTIVELY SAY I HAVE SENT THE COMMAND WISE AND IMPORTANT BECAUSE YOU DON'T WANT THE OPERATOR TO CLICK ON THE DOWN BUTTON GASKET TINY NO YES THE MESSAGE WAS SENT WITH SENT YES STOP LICKING ME DON'T YOU WISH YOU HAD SOME MY OWN EMAIL SEND BUTTON RIGHT YES I KNOW ALL THE SUBMIT BUTTON FORM ON THE WEBSITE SUBMIT PSYCH PLEASE DO NOT KEEP GOD MORASS THAT NO DON'T KNOW YOU'LL GET OURS MORE THAN ONCE DO NOT RELOAD THIS PAGE YOU'LL GET MULTIPLE CREDIT CARD TRANSACTIONS IN THIS IS AN ATTEMPT TO OVERCOME THAT BUT THE IMPLEMENTATION THE WAY BEEN DONE WAS NOT ACTUALLY CORRECT SO WASN'T COMMAND RESPONSE FROM ICE IN A COMMANDING DEVICE RESPOND THAT HAD ACTUALLY REACTED IT WAS COMMAND HAS BEEN SENT RESPONSE YES IN FACT THE COMMAND GOT THERE BUT I HAVE NO IDEA OF THE DINNING SO THE COMMAND RESPONSE WAS ACTUALLY THE COMMAND RESPONSE OF THE COMMAND NOT THE COMMAND RESPONSE OF THE ACTUAL COMMAND INTENTION IF THAT MAKES SENSE SIZE, LIKE ME SAYING TO YOU ARM YOUR VICTOR HAPPY MIKE YOU SAY YES I WILL TAP MY MIKE AS A GREAT BUT YOU NEVER TAPPING MIKE MIGHT I THANK YOU VERY MUCH THANK YOU FOR SCREWING UP MY ANALOGY THAT YES OKAY SO BUNS AS BUTTONS BUT AS INDICATORS INDICATORS BUTTONS ECHOES AND INDICATORS THEY GO THEY ONLY KNOW TRY TO KEEP SEPARATE BOYS AND GIRLS JUST DO IT THESE TO DR JOHN THANK YOU DO IT FRAGILE FROM ME GOOD FOR ME AND AND ALL THE OTHER APPRAISAL THANK YOU WELL MAYBE THEY WON'T THANK YOU SOME OF THEM ARE MISERABLE LOT BUT THAT'S BECAUSE THEY WORK LONGER HOURS AND THEY DO SHIFT WORK AND THAT DISPENSING ONE CRANKY ARTICLE FOR A FEW YEARS AND HOW A VARIETY THEY KNOW NOTHING I LEAVE IT THERE THERE IS SO MUCH MORE TO SAY ABOUT SCAR THAT IS JUST SCRATCHING THE SURFACE AND DO NAVIGATIONS 10 I HAD DOWN THE LIST ON THE OLIVE NAVIGATION RELATIVELY GOING FOR OVER AN HOUR AND I THINK I WANT TO DRAW THE LINE THERE WASN'T MORE ABOUT THIS YOU REACH ME ON TWITTER AT JOHN GEAGEA ARE AND YOU CAN TEAR MY WRITING AND THE SQUAD CARS AND OTHERS I'VE MADE AN ERROR hosted@adistortion.com likely in touch with the Okanagan subsidy that they can phone me on Twitter advocates and want and you recently started back doing the absolute broadcasters are right I did find that that group ITS that fantastic right if you got any feedback about the show pleases feedback from the website as we also function as this episode of the casts pragmatic if there are topics you would like me to come you can suggest and vote on the site of the topics once you sign up for a free account was a study released exits in the show that off topic and complement episode on calling it addenda look for a site under podcast addenda dignify pragmatic 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are you waiting for thanks again Victor and of course thank you to everyone you can say something if you want thank you something thank you something thank you some delay something if I want to find financier say this arm the comeback now here old boy area yah come back now you hear much better thank you very muchďż˝
Duration 1 hour, 27 minutes and 22 seconds Direct Download

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Harvest: Harvest allows you to track your time quickly and easily with the ability to quickly turn those timesheets into invoices for your clients with built-in support for both PayPal and Stripe. Visit the URL below and sign up for a free 30 day trial today. Visit getharvest.com and use the Coupon Code PRAGMATIC and you’ll also save 50% off your first month but be quick - this offer expires on January the 15th, 2015!

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People

Vic Hudson

Vic Hudson

Vic is the host of the App Story Podcast and is the developer behind Money Pilot for iOS.

John Chidgey

John Chidgey

John is an Electrical, Instrumentation and Control Systems Engineer, programmer, podcaster and runs TechDistortion and the Engineered Network. John has produced and appeared on many podcasts as well as Pragmatic.

What Happened to Mastodon? You can reach me on the Fediverse as explained here, just search for me on your instance of Mastodon, Misskey or Pleroma and you’ll be able to follow/remote follow me wherever you are!